CIS4398: Independent Study
Summer 2002
Emerging Issues in Information Technology


Citation documentation will take two forms in your final paper, and may take a third form (footnote and/or endnote):

  • In the References section, where all the sources you've used should be listed alphabetically, and
  • Within the text of your paper, where parentheses should show your readers where you found each piece of information that you have used. These textual citations allow the reader to refer to your References for further information. If a quote is used, not only should the reference be cited, but the page from which the quote is taken as well.
  • As a footnote or endnote.

Some general rules for APA reference pages (Note: A more detailed reference guide can be found at

  • Begin the reference list on a new page.  The page begins with the word References (Reference if there is only one), centered in the top, middle of the page, using both upper and lower case. If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type the word References on sequential pages, simply continue your list.

  • Use one space after all punctuation.

  • The first line of the reference is flush left.  Lines thereafter are indented as a group, a few spaces, to create a hanging indention.  

  • Double space between citations.  Single space in the citations. 

  • Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.

  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.

  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order.

  • Give in parentheses the year the work was published.  For magazines and newspapers, give the year followed by the month and date, if any.  If no date is available, write n.d.

  • Give volume numbers for magazines, journals, and newsletters.  Include the issue number for journals if and only if each issue begins on 1.


The list of references always appears at the end of the paper. Generally, the list is alphabetized according to the last name of the first author. How the list is referenced depends on the type of  work from which the reference was taken. The following list (taken from the AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) FORMAT (5th Edition) at provides some examples:

  • Journal Article, one author

Simon, A. (2000). Perceptual comparisons through the mindís eye. Memory & Cognition, 23, 635-647.

  • Journal Article, two authors

Becker, M. B., & Rozek, S. J. (1995). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 230-343.

  • Magazine Article, one author

Garner, H. J. (1997, July). Do babies have a universal song? Psychology Today,102, 70-77.

  • Newspaper article, no author

Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 3). Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A25.

  • Book, two authors

Struck, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979).  The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

  • Edited book

Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education. New York: Praeger.

  • Entry in an Encyclopedia

Imago. (2000). In World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 10, p. 79).  Chicago: World Book Encyclopedia.

  • Videotape

Mass, J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis. (Motion picture). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Internet Article Based on Print Source (The citation is done as if it were a paper article and then followed by a retrieval statement that identifies the date retrieved and source).

Sahelian, R. (1999, January).  Achoo!  Better Nutrition, 61, p. 24.  Retrieved September 17, 2001, from Academic Index.

  • Web page, no author, no date

GVUís 8th WWW user suvey. (n.d.)  Retrieved September 19, 2001, from

  • Web page, no date

Thompson, G. (n.d.). Youth coach handbook.  In Joe soccer. Retrieved September 17, 2001 from

  • Web page, Government Author

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2001, March 14). Glacial habitat restoration areas. Retrieved September 18, 2001 from

  • Personal Communications. Personal communications may be things such as email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone conversations. Because the information is not retrievable they should not appear in the reference list.  They should look as follows:

J. Burnitz (personal communications, September 20, 2000).

Reference Citations in Text

To refer to an item in the list of references from the text an author-date method should be used.  That is, use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication in the text at appropriate points.

  • One author

Issac (2001) indicated in his research ........ in a recent study, research indicates (Isaac, 2001)

  • Two or more authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs. For works with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.  In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al.

  • When a work has no authors

Cite in text the first few words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and the year.


A Note on Footnotes and Endnotes (from:

Footnotes (including citations at the bottom of each page) have not gone entirely the way of the dinosaurs. In fact it is ironic that footnotes were declared outmoded just before the era of the word-processors which make using footnotes so much easier. Still, because of its relative ease in both writing and reading, parenthetical documentation is greatly preferred by most instructors.

Endnotes (gathering citations and reference lists at the end of each chapter or at the end of the paper) have enjoyed a popularity among academic writers, primarily because they make the transition from a submitted manuscript to published resource so much easier. Even so, parenthetical documentation has supplanted both footnotes and endnotes in most academic disciplines.

For writers in some disciplines, however ó most notably in some of the humanities disciplines such as music, art, religion, theology, and even (sometimes) history ó footnotes are still widely in use. A wise student will check with his or her instructor to make sure that parenthetical documentation is an acceptable method of citing resources.

Using either footnotes or endnotes, writers refer their readers to citations and reference lists by means of a number at the end of a sentence, phrase or clause containing the language or idea requiring citation. The number appears as a superscript.15 No space appears between the period and the superscript number. There should be four spaces between the last line of text and the first footnote on each page. Footnotes should be first-line indented and single-spaced with a double-space between each footnote. If necessary, a footnote can be carried into a subsequent page. In that event, on the second page, create a solid line two spaces below the last line of text, include another double-space and then finish the footnote. Double-space before the next footnote.

Footnotes and endnotes appear with their corresponding superscript number and are written with the first line indented. The author's name will appear in normal order (not reversed), separated from the other information with a comma. Publication data (City: Press, year) appears in parentheses, and no period is used until the very end of the citation.

#15 Ronald E. Pepin, Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988) 78.

#16 Christie, John S. "Fathers and Virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold" Latin American Literary Review 13.3 (Fall 1993): 21-29.

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