This page was developed, and is maintained, by
Owen E. Williams, Director of the UMC Library,
University of Minnesota, Crookston,
and is reproduced with permission (and my gratitude). Updated versions can be
Citation documentation will take two forms in your final paper, and may take
a third form (footnote and/or endnote):
|In the References section, where all the sources you've used should
be listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Every reference made MUST be included here and
NO inclusions in this list can appear if it is not referred to in the
|Within the text of your paper, where parentheses should show your
readers where you found each piece of information that you have used. These
textual citations allow the reader to refer to your References for further
information. If a quote is used, not only should the reference be cited, but
the page from which the quote is taken as well. |
|As a footnote or endnote.|
Some general rules for APA
reference pages (Note: A more detailed reference guide can be found
the reference list on a new page. The page begins with the word References
(Reference if there is only one), centered in the top, middle of the page, using
both upper and lower case. If the references take up more than one page, do not
re-type the word References on sequential pages, simply continue your list.
one space after all punctuation.
The first line
of the reference is flush left. Lines thereafter are indented as a group, a few
spaces, to create a hanging indention.
between citations. Single space in the citations.
Use italics for
titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.
in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the
reference list must be cited in text.
in alphabetical order.
parentheses the year the work was published. For magazines and newspapers, give
the year followed by the month and date, if any. If no date is available, write
numbers for magazines, journals, and newsletters. Include the issue number for
journals if and only if each issue begins on 1.
The list of references always appears at the end of the paper. Generally, the
list is alphabetized according to the last name of the first author. How the
list is referenced depends on the type of work from which the reference
was taken. The following list (taken from the AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
(APA) FORMAT (5th Edition) at
http://www.crk.umn.edu/library/links/apa5th.htm) provides some examples:
Journal Article, one
A. (2000). Perceptual comparisons through the mindís eye. Memory &
Cognition, 23, 635-647.
Journal Article, two
M. B., & Rozek, S. J. (1995). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of
Social Issues, 32,
Magazine Article, one
H. J. (1997, July). Do babies have a universal song? Psychology Today,102,
Newspaper article, no
Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 3). Wall Street Journal, pp.
Book, two authors
W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd
ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education.
New York: Praeger.
Entry in an Encyclopedia
(2000). In World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 10, p. 79). Chicago: World
J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis.
(Motion picture). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Internet Article Based on Print Source
(The citation is done as
if it were a paper article and then followed by a retrieval statement that
identifies the date retrieved and source).
R. (1999, January). Achoo! Better Nutrition, 61, p. 24. Retrieved
September 17, 2001, from Academic Index.
Web page, No author, no date
WWW user suvey. (n.d.) Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/x.
Web page, no date
Thompson, G. (n.d.). Youth
coach handbook. In Joe soccer. Retrieved September 17, 2001 from
Web page, Government Authot
of Natural Resources. (2001, March 14).
Glacial habitat restoration areas. Retrieved September 18,
2001 from http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/wildlife/hunt/hra.htm
Personal communications may be such things as
email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone conversations. Because the
information is not retrievable, they should not appear in the reference list.
they should be cited in the body of the text as follows:
J. Burnitz (personal communications, September 20,
Reference Citations in
To refer to an item in the
list of references from the text an author-date method should be used. That is,
use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication
in the text at appropriate points.
Issac (2001) indicated in his research
in a recent
study, research indicates (Isaac, 2001)
Two or more authors
When a work has two authors,
always cite both names every time the reference occurs. For works with three,
four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In
subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by
When a work has no authors
Cite in text the first few
words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and
A note on Footnotes and Endnotes (from:
Footnotes (including citations at the bottom of each page) have not gone
entirely the way of the dinosaurs. In fact it is ironic that footnotes were
declared outmoded just before the era of the word-processors which make using
footnotes so much easier. Still, because of its relative ease in both writing
and reading, parenthetical documentation is greatly preferred by most
Endnotes (gathering citations and reference lists at the end of each chapter
or at the end of the paper) have enjoyed a popularity among academic writers,
primarily because they make the transition from a submitted manuscript to
published resource so much easier. Even so, parenthetical documentation has
supplanted both footnotes and endnotes in most academic disciplines.
For writers in some disciplines, however ó most notably in some of the
humanities disciplines such as music, art, religion, theology, and even
(sometimes) history ó footnotes are still widely in use. A wise student will
check with his or her instructor to make sure that parenthetical documentation
is an acceptable method of citing resources.
Using either footnotes or endnotes, writers refer their readers to citations
and reference lists by means of a number at the end of a sentence, phrase or
clause containing the language or idea requiring citation. The number appears as
a superscript.15 No space appears between the period and the
superscript number. There should be four spaces between the last line of text
and the first footnote on each page. Footnotes should be first-line indented and
single-spaced with a double-space between each footnote. If necessary, a
footnote can be carried into a subsequent page. In that event, on the second
page, create a solid line two spaces below the last line of text, include
another double-space and then finish the footnote. Double-space before the next
Footnotes and endnotes appear with their corresponding superscript number and
are written with the first line indented. The author's name will appear in
normal order (not reversed), separated from the other information with a comma.
Publication data (City: Press, year) appears in parentheses, and no period is
used until the very end of the citation.
Ronald E. Pepin, Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century (Lewiston:
Edwin Mellen Press, 1988) 78.
Christie, John S. "Fathers and Virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian
Chronicle of a Death Foretold" Latin American Literary Review 13.3
(Fall 1993): 21-29.
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